He made his remarks while accepting an award for championing small bookstores at BookExpo America, the industry's annual convention.
Patterson said he believes "the future of our literature is in danger."
"Amazon wants to control book buying, book selling and even book publishing," Patterson said, adding that the company "sounds like the beginning of a monopoly."
Amazon is in the midst of a battle with Patterson's publisher, Hachette Book Group. In a pricing dispute, the online retailer has deliberately limited the supply of books from Hachette, including titles from Patterson and J.K. Rowling (writing as Robert Galbraith).
Amazon did not comment on Patterson's remarks, but the company has defended its stance, saying it has been unable to reach equitable terms with Hachette.
In his speech, Patterson called out the U.S. government and the news media for failing to acknowledge Amazon's actions, specifically mentioning BEA's media partners, including USA TODAY. However, USA TODAY has written about the controversy in the past week, including an article posted Wednesday.
The author's remarks are similar to a post he wrote on his Facebook page May 13. "Right now, bookstores, libraries, authors and books themselves are caught in the cross fire of an economic war," he wrote. "If this is the new American way, then maybe it has to be changed — by law, if necessary — immediately, if not sooner."
The crowd at the awards luncheon gave Patterson a standing ovation.